Metro Detroiters, out-of-town visitors, and architectural aficionados worldwide have long admired the Penobscot Building in Detroit’s Financial District. Like its close neighbor, the Guardian Building, and the Fisher Building further north in Midtown, it is one of the city’s finest examples of art deco architecture and one of the iconic structures that still make up Detroit’s skyline today. Designed by Wirt C. Rowland of Smith, Hinchman, & Grylls, when its 47 stories were built in 1928, it was the tallest building in the city and the fourth tallest in the nation.
The Penobscot, on the National Register of Historic Places, is perhaps best known architecturally for its tiered upper seventeen floors and the exterior ornament by sculptor Corrado Parducci, whose work can be seen on many other Detroit buildings. It’s also known to locals for the red-lit globe at the top (originally designed as an aviation beacon), the legendary Caucus Club (Barbara Streisand reportedly launched her singing career here), or the famed roof observation deck which offered an excellent panorama of the city.
But, what about the interior of the Penobscot? Well it just so happens there’s a Cranbrook connection!
The Guardian Detroit Group was the first tenant of the two-story bank hall at 635 Griswold St. before they had their own skyscraper commissioned just a block away. A later occupant, Detroit City Bank, opened in the same space in February 1949. When they did, adorning one wall was a mural painted by Cranbrook Academy of Art graduate and Head of Kingswood School Art Department (1940-1956), Clifford B. West. Known as the “Mural of Michigan” the twenty-six-foot painting depicts scenes representing state commerce and industry. West, who studied under Zoltan Sepeshy, and with fellow muralist David Fredenthal, had already completed a bank mural in Alamosa, Colorado, as well as Detroit-area murals in the Rackham Building, Stockholm Restaurant, and Fox & Hounds Restaurant.
Following a meticulous process that involved a series of sketches at different scales, cartoons plotted to a numbered grid and traced on the wall, and painting in two steps (large blocks of color followed by detail work), the scenes were applied in casein tempera on canvas cemented to the wall. Joining in this process was West’s wife and fellow artist, Joy Griffin West, and several academy students. Fortuitously, each stage of work was captured in a series of photographs by Cranbrook photographer, Harvey Croze.
Upon completion of the mural, West mounted an exhibit at Cranbrook Art Museum titled, Progress of a Mural in April 1949, detailing his process for the Penobscot mural, and featuring many of the preliminary sketches and cartoons.
It’s largely unknown whether the Penobscot mural exists today, since a drop ceiling was installed many years ago, completely obscuring West’s creation.
—Deborah Rice, Head Archivist
Dear Deborah, I so enjoy your Kitchen Sink articles. Some time ago you or one of your cohorts wrote something about Glen Paulsen. I found it interesting that the article did not mention that he had once been an Academy of Art Director in the mid-60’s. Am I correct? I should take time to look it up, but I know you can do it faster than I!! I am just curious as I am a docent at Cranbrook House and every once in awhile trivia such as this comes up.
Thank you, Karen Street K‘59
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Thanks for the message! Paulsen was President of the Academy of Art from 1966 to 1970. You can read more about his tenure on our online exhibition, Presidents/Residents! https://center.cranbrook.edu/glen-paulsen
Thanks for reading,
Thank you for continuing these posts! It’s always a delight to read new things about Cranbrook. _____________________
DOUGLAS L LIEBERMAN (Cranbrook ’64) firstname.lastname@example.org
DEBORAH, VERY INTERESTING ARTICLE, I ESPECIALLY ENJOYED LEARNING THE PARTICULARS…
Loved this piece on Cranbrook Kingswood/Detroit history. Didn’t know this connection or about Mark and Joy Griffin West. You’re doing great work preserving this legacy, work others will remember and hopefully honor in the next century!